Genetic engineering improves enzyme protein expression.
Genetic engineering means that DNA is recombined in vitro to obtain a suitable DNA fragment and then put into the proper host cells for expression. By changing the genetic elements and regulatory elements of the gene, the enzyme expression can be changed.
Typical bacteria and fungi used to produce enzymes have 2 to 10000 related genes. The gene encoding the protein of Bacillus subtilis is located on a long chain of chromosome DNA containing 4 million 200 thousand base pairs. Aspergillus niger contains about 35 million base pairs encoding the enzyme protein, which are located on the long chain of the 8 DNA chromosomes. A gene determines the amino acid composition and specific amino acid sequence of a protein. A typical fragment of a gene encoding an enzyme produced by a bacterium is about 1000 nucleotides in length and encodes a protein of about more than and 300 amino acids. In addition to the DNA fragment encoding the gene, there is a DNA fragment that controls the expression of a gene called a promoter. Only a fraction of the genes in an organism are always in expression. The promoter element controls the coordinated expression of the corresponding gene fragments, and the function of the DNA promoter fragment can be compared to a light switch, which controls the initiation, the expression and the termination of the corresponding structural gene.
Genetic engineering also requires the transfer of recombinant DNA into the appropriate host cells. Enzyme Expression in E. coli and Bacillus subtilis are relatively easy.
Method for enzyme production:
By using various techniques, the enzyme is extracted directly from the plant cells or tissues. The extraction method is simple and easy, but it is limited by the source of raw materials.
It was a new technology in the mid 1960s.
Only those known chemical structure enzymes can be synthesized; the cost is relatively high.
It is still in the stage of laboratory synthesis.
It is the main method of producing enzyme since 1950s.
The method of synthesizing the required enzymes by the activity of microbial cells is microbial fermentation.
Enzyme fermentation is the main method of enzyme production.
Creative Enzymes provide a series of enzyem services to serve customers, including gene cloning, expression, and optimization&purification of enzymes.
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